How Volkswagen’s cheat device works

German automaker giant Volkswagen is recently under fierce criticisms following the U.S. Environment Protection Agency’s (EPA) revelation of a cheat device installed in some of its newer diesel units. According to EPA, the software was sophisticatedly designed to defraud standard emission tests in the U.S. This fiasco, which was dubbed to be the most disastrous that Volkswagen has ever been into yet, ignited the ire not just of authorities around the world, but also of consumers who have to suffer from a decreased resale value.

More and more people are planning to file for a Volkswagen emissions lawsuit after learning that the company deliberately tricked them to believe that what they are buying is a combination of power and fuel efficiency. But how does Volkswagen’s knotty software really work? Below is a brief rundown of how it functions:

Software analyzes testing conditions

The software was intricately programmed to identify whether the car is under a standard emission test. Its analysis depends mainly on four different but interdependent factors: the speed of the car, the movement of the steering wheel, the atmospheric pressure, and how long the engine is operated. A speed that is beyond 65 mph but with a fixed steering wheel and an engine operated in a relatively shorter period of time could mean that the vehicle is under an emission test.

Software switches to safe mode

Once the engine detected that it is running under testing conditions, it will automatically switch to a safe mode to emit less amount of oxides. Vehicles with this cheat device are installed with a nitrogen oxide trap (NOx trap), which filters dangerous nitrogen oxides and reduce toxic emissions. However, because NOx trap only works better when there are more oxides trapped in the filter, it would require the engine to combust more fuel, making it fuel-costly.

Software switches back to normal mode

Because operating in safe mode could cost more fuel, the software switches back to normal mode when in road conditions. But because the trap doesn’t anymore filter enough oxides to allow it to work more efficiently, the car emits oxides up to 40 times more than what the law allows.

How much sound can a gun silencer “silence?”

First, it is important to know that silencers are somehow a misnomer. Silencers threaded at the tip of the barrel don’t actually silence a gun, as opposed to what most action films try to depict. These accessories only suppress the sound of the gunshot. In the real world, there is no possible way to actually silence a gun completely.

However, silencers can significantly decrease gunshot noise by an average of 30 decibels. So, if a gunshot’s dB level is 140, a reduction to 1,100 dB means 8 times less noise or 1,000 times less intensity, which is a great deal since dB is measured in logarithmic scale. Some may even go higher than that. According to http://www.suppressedweaponsystems.com/ , rifles equipped with a barrel integrated with a suppressor fire quieter. They are also stronger and better in reducing recoil and baffle strikes.

But what does a 30 dB reduction really mean? A 30dB reduction is comparable to wearing an ear protection when firing a gun. In such cases, equipping your barrel with a quality-manufactured suppressor could mean not needing to wear an ear muff anymore. However, to keep injuries at bay, it is better to veer on the side of caution and wear hearing protection when shooting with suppressors.

There are a variety of reasons why a gun can never be totally noise-free. The sound of the hammer hitting the primer, for instance, can create a metallic “clang” noise that can never be filtered out by suppressors. A bullet piercing through the air can also create a mini-sonic boom called a bullet crack. So, ideally, a person shooting a gun would hear a metallic “clang” sound coming from the hammer hitting the primer, and a suppressed “bang” sound created by the hot gasses that go out of the muzzle. Meanwhile, a person being targeted could hear a “crack” sound, produced by the shock wave coming from the speeding bullets.

What you need to know about pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood vessel in the lungs has been blocked by an embolus, or clot, which usually travels from the body’s deep veins. Although there are many possible causes of pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is considered the most common. DVT occurs when a blood clot is formed in one of your leg’s deep veins. When a portion of the blood clot dislodges, it may travel to the lungs and block the pulmonary artery, causing pulmonary embolism.

Your risk of developing pulmonary embolism lies on your vulnerability in developing blood clots. Individuals with medical history of blood clots, for instance, are more prone to this condition. Prolonged bed rest, long travels, and immobility may also increase your risk of DVT, which in turn may elevate your chance of developing pulmonary embolism. According to the website of Williams Kherkher, birth control pills Yaz, Yasmin and Ocella have been associated with cases of serious blood clots that can ultimately lead to pulmonary embolism.

Pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening. And so, immediate treatment is necessary to prevent its fatal health complications. More invasive procedures, such as vein filter use and clot removal, are recommended for severe and life-threatening cases. Bard G2 IVC filters, for instance, can be used to prevent pulmonary embolism by filtering out blot clots that enter the inferior vena cava. However, Bard G2 IVC Filter lawsuit attorneys warned about the device’s risk of fatal injuries, such as blood vessel perforation and organ damage. For mild cases, medications such as anticoagulants and thrombolytics might be used to dissolve blood clot and prevent new clots from forming.

Persons with pulmonary embolism may experience chest pain similar to a heart attack, cough, and difficulty breathing. If you are at increased risk of the disease and are experiencing one or more of these symptoms, seek medical help immediately for a prompt and accurate pulmonary embolism diagnosis and treatment.

Cephalohematoma: Its symptoms, risks, and complications

Birth injuries account for a majority of infant deaths in the U.S. In fact, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that six out of 1,000 babies born die during their first twelve months, and birth defects have been among the major culprit (every 4 ½ minutes, a baby dies due to a birth defect). The website of attorneys Hach & Rose, LLP says that although birth defects can be a result of myriad different factors, most cases have been associated with medical negligence.

One of the most common birth defects recorded in the U.S. is cephalohematoma, or hematoma above the baby’s skull. It occurs when blood underneath the skin of the baby pools due to damaged blood vessels, creating a bulge that usually heals even without treatment.

But although most cases of cephalohematoma are self-limiting, its complications can become deadly. For instance, major pooling of blood underneath the skin of the baby’s head may cause a dramatic increase in the baby’s bilirubin level. Bilirubin is used to breakdown old red blood cells. As the blood underneath the skin of the baby’s head breaks down, bilirubin level is increased, which might put a strain on your baby’s liver. As such, parents and doctors should watch out for symptoms of liver failure, such as jaundice.

There are many potential causes of cephalohematoma. Babies with larger head, for instance, are more prone to cephalohematoma especially if it is larger than the mother’s pelvic area. Prolonged and difficult labor may also increase the risk of this minor birth injury. Medical negligence may also cause this condition. Wrong use of forceps and other instruments during assisted vaginal delivery, for instance, has been associated with cephalohematoma.

Danville personal injury attorneys would probably say that it is difficult for parents whose child was born with cephalohematoma deal with this situation, especially in severe cases where complications are more likely. And so, parents should watchfully look for signs of cephalohematoma complications, and promptly seek medical help when needed.

Am I Qualified for SSDI?

Having a disability can be life-changing. It may ultimately affect your capacity to earn a living. For some, a disability could be so disheartening that it completely changed how they look at themselves. Getting social security benefits may not be enough for persons with disabilities to repair what was physically and emotionally taken from them, but it can definitely support them and their families as they try to manage their financial situation.

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is the monthly benefits given to those determined by the Social Security Administration (SSA) to be qualified for the federal program. If you have a disability and are planning to file for SSDI, SSA would consider a variety of things to decide whether you are qualified or not:

Are you disabled?

Your capacity to work is central to SSA’s definition of disability. For instance, having a disability could mean not being able to accomplish the things that you can do before. A condition can also be defined as a disability if it takes away your capability to adjust to other work conditions. Depending on the agency’s assessment, a person with a condition that meets disability qualifications set by the SSA could be eligible for SSDI.

How long have you worked?

Before being qualified for disability benefits, you must have worked in occupations that are covered by Social Security. Not only that, SSA requires that you must have been employed long enough under Social Security to receive SSDI benefits. According to SSA, a person would typically need 40 work credits to qualify for the program. The equivalence of work credit varies from year to year. For instance, in 2015, one work credit equals $1,220 of wages.

What is your other situation?

Apart from the qualifications mentioned above, the may SSA also look for other qualifications to decide on your eligibility for SSDI. For instance, SSDI applicants who are blind or have low vision may qualify for disability benefits under special ruling.

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